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Gretchen E. Leonhardt

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Phonetic Correspondences among the Linear A, the Linear B, and the Arcado-Cypriot (Linear C) Scripts

Updated on March 1, 2018 Although Linear A* and Linear B are deemed distinct scripts, their mutual influence is demonstrated through phonetic comparisons (see Younger).  And, although both Linear B and Arcado-Cypriot (Linear C) are deemed Greek scripts, there has been no concerted effort to compare them, perhaps because it is believed that the two Greek scripts represent […]

The Decipherment of Linear C: ICS 152

An epitaph at Marion 4.7″ (12 cm) high x 9.1″ (23 cm) long Two lines, 13 syllabic-Greek characters, written in sinistroverse Located in the cemetery (necropolis) at Marion in the district of Paphos, this epitaph includes both a declaration and a qualification. [Read from right to left] .1  ti-mo-ka-mo-se-e-mi .2  o-ti-mo-ta-mo-ne 1. *e-mi | ἐμέ […]

The Treatment of Anthroponyms in the Linear Scripts

Updated on February 27, 2018 Whereas LinB and LinC may be distinguished by their respective treatments of anthroponyms, LinA may be distinguished by the absence of anthroponyms.  These distinctions merit scrutiny. The absence of anthroponyms in LinA can perhaps be explained in modern terms.  In Japanese society, the individual is typically subordinated for the good of the community.  […]

The Decipherment of Linear B: OL Zh 1

The Kafkania pebble Approx. 2.0″ (4.9 cm) long x 1.5″ (4.08 cm.) wide x .6″ (1.62 cm.) thick Two sides, eight signs and one “erroneous” sign Since its discovery on April 1, 1994 (April Fool’s Day), at Kafkania, north of Olympia in West Peloponnese, this galet “pebble” has engendered great controversy about its authenticity. The “Kafkania pebble” was embedded in a […]

The Decipherment of Linear B: PSY 1

A bi-script, tomb marker from Psykhro, Crete A yellow brick tentatively dated to the Roman period Four lines, 24 alphabetic-Greek characters and three syllabic-Greek characters, dextroverse Approx. 7″ (17.5 cm) high x 6.5″ (16.3 cm) wide x 2.0″ (4.8 cm) deep The confusion regarding its provenience is among the many reasons for Ray Brown’s “proof” […]

Beyond the Mediterranean

This post supplements Around the Mediterranean and challenges assumptions about the scope of Minoan and Mycenaean travel. Two amber talismans from Bernstorff, Germany  

The Decipherment of Linear C: ICS 260

A funerary stele at Golgoi 28.3″ (72 cm) high x 37.0″ (94 cm) long One line, eight alphabetic-Greek characters and five syllabic-Greek characters Relative date: 6th cent. BCE Located in the cemetery (necropolis) at Golgoi on Cyprus, this digraphic inscription is found at the base of a stele that includes two profiled lions facing the viewer and a winged […]

The Decipherment of Linear C: ICS 427

Graffiti at Karnak Dimensions unavailable Five lines, 26 alphabetic-Greek characters and 15 syllabic-Greek characters, written boustrophedon Karnak is a vast, ancient-Egyptian complex of chapels and temples, which includes the well-known temple of Amon. Due to long neglect, graffiti was allowed to flourish on the site’s many walls.  Located on the east wall of the temple of Achoris, […]

The Decipherment of Linear C: ICS 121

Onyx Scarab yellow a-ri-si-to-wa | na-xe 1. a-ri-si-to*wa-na-xe | †ἀριστωαναξ (aristoanax) | †the best of masters ἀριστωαναξ the best of masters Notes:  The inscription follows the curve of the scarab in boustrophedon style: a-ri-si-to-wa | na-xe. Masson translates as Ἀριστοϝά|ναξ, which presumes an anthroponym rather than a generic reference.  Cf. similar Greek compounds (e.g. ἀριστοπάλας (aristopalas) “the best of wrestlers”). […]

The Decipherment of Linear C: ICS 219

A surgeon’s cautery 7.125”  (18 cm) 19 characters, sinistroverse Relative date:  6th cent. BCE .1  a-mu-se-ka-te-te-ke-ta-i-ti-o-i-ta-i-ko-lo-ki-a-I Proposed syntax: .1  a-mu-se , ka-te-te , ke-ta-i , ti-o , i-ta-i , ko-lo , ki-a-i 1. a-mu-se |  ἄμυξι(ς) (amucis) | scarification 2. i-ta-i | ἱ(σ)τᾷ (istai) | he lies [in repose] 3. ka-te-te | καθετή(ρ) (kateter) | that which is let down [e.g. an instrument such as […]