Japanese Concordances with Indo-European (IE) Languages

· Linguistics

Updated on September 06, 2020

One theory states that Japanese cannot be the underlying language of Linear A (LA) because Japanese, like LA, must belong to the Indo-European (IE) family of languages to be considered. Paradoxically, linguists separately postulate that both LA and the Japonic languages belong to the Altaic family of IE languages. Consequently, many linguists may be surprised about the prevalence of Japanese words with IE concordances. This list is intended to demonstrate that the Japanese concordances with Indo-European are more numerous than linguists have supposed. Consider, especially, the concordances between Japanese and Greek. There is growing evidence, especially among Linear B (LB) tablets, that Greek and Japanese are related languages.



Greek words
αιτας | αιτέω | ἀναιρέω | ἀναρρέω | γανάω | γῦρος | δήνεα | ἐγώ | ἱερός | ινάω | Ἶρος | καναχή | καρῶ | κύμινον | κρατέω | μάχομαι | μασι- | μέθυ | μόρα | ὁδός | οὐδός | ρέω | ῥῦμα | σᾶμα | σῆμα | σορός | τζάκι | χάση | χιτών |

Japanese Kanji
相手 | 暗流 | 台座 | 談話 | | 一己 | 異な | | 一水 | 邪気 | 自己 | | 回路 | | 空手 | 刈る | 瑕疵 | | | 生糸 | 岐路 | 古墳 | 興奮 | 小女 | 後端 | | 苦味 | | | | | 負け | 負け | | | | | | | 王道 | | 見栄え | 現実 | 疵瑕 | 甑炉 | てき | てき | 占い | 野師 | 野師 |

Japanese Romaji
aite | anryuu | daiza | danwa | gawa | gen | ieru | ikko | ina | iro | issui | jaki | jiko | kairo | kane | karate | karu | kashi | kawa | ki’ito | kiro | kofun | ko’onna | koufun | koutan | ku | kumi | kumo | kuni | kuruma | maji | make | masu | mido | mi’ido | miru | mitsu | motoi | mura | natsu | oudou | ryuu | sama | sana | sane | shika | souro | teki | uranai | yashi |

相手 (n.) companion, company, partner; other party, addressee


  • LA a.i-te
  • Gr. αιτας (aitas) “a beloved youth, a favorite”
  • Gr. αιτέω (aiteo) “to, ask, to beg, to request” > αιτης (aites) “beggar”

Notes: While it may be said that the person on the receiving end of a request is an addressee, it may also be said that we request the most from our companions. Cf. also ko.sa.[i].ti [HT 117] > kousai-aite “a person with whom one has a relationship”.

Entry added on 05 Nov 2013

暗流 (n.) undercurrent


  • LB a-na-re-u [KN Pp 494]
  • Gr. ἀναρρέω (anahrreô) “to flow back, to stream back”
  • Gr. ἀναιρέω (anaihreô) “to bear away

Notes: An undercurrent flows in a direction different from that of the surface current. See also RYUU.

Entry added on 06 Sep 2020

台座 (n.) pedestal


  • dais < Anglo-French deis < O. Fr. dais “platform, table”

Notes: See also AB *006 NA in The Meanings of Linear-Script Signs.

Entry added on 30 Jul 2013
Updated on 15 Nov 2016

談話 (n.) conversation, discourse, talk


  • LB da-nwa
  • Gr. δήνεα (denea) “counsels, plans”

Notes: The LB shift to the Greek δήνεα suggests that the original word may have been da-na-wa, or perhaps da-ne-wa, before its weakening to da-nwa.

Entry added on 09 Nov 2012

原 (pref.) fundamental, original, primary, primitive, raw
源 (suf.) origin, source


  • PIE *gen(e)- “be born; beget, produce”
  • genesis < Gr. γένεσις (genesis) “origin, source”
  • genetic < Gr. γενετικός (genetikos) “genitive case” < Gr. γένεσις (genesis) “origin, source”
  • genital < L. genitalis “pertaining to birth or generation”
  • genitive < O. Fr. genitif or L. genitivus “case expressing possession, origin, source”
  • genus < L. genus “birth, descent, family, origin” or Gr. γένος (genos) “kin, race, stock”
  • O. E. cennan “beget, create”
  • Sanskrit janati “bears, begets”
  • Welsh geni “to be born”

Notes: See also KUNI and MOTOI.

Entry added on 01 Feb 2015

癒 (v.) to be healed


  • LB i-je-ro > ἱερός (hieros) “filled with; sacred” [KN Dv 1447]
  • LB i-je-re-u > ἱερεύς (hiereus) “a diviner, a priest, a sacrificer” [PY Eo 247]

Notes:  Moreover, cf. alternate 癒すiyasu “to be healed”, which appears to be related to Ἰᾱσώ (Iasô) or Ionic Ἰησώ (Iesô) “Iaso, the goddess of health and healing”.  Thus, Jesu (Jesus) is the embodiment of the master healer.  The given name, Jason, is also rooted in healing.  In many cultures throughout history, there essentially is no separation between the priest and the healer.  Included in 癒 is刂 to “knife, standing sword”, perhaps a dual reference to the physician and the sacrificer.

On a side note, 刂 to appears related to τομίς “knife”.

Entry added on 05 Apr 2021

一己 (n.) oneself; (adj.) personal, private

自己 (n.) self, oneself


  • Gr. ἐγώ (egô) “I” (first-person pronoun)
  • O. E. ic “I”
  • G. ich “I, me, myself”

Notes: While both words contain 己 ko “self”, jiko includes the redundant 自 ji, shi “self” and appears to be a later reanalysis of ikko, which includes 一 ichi “one”. Moreover, 己 has a collateral meaning of “serpent”, which may be compared with the kundalini, a symbol of the life force.
Entry added on 05 Apr 2018

異な (adj.) odd, strange, unusual


  • LB i-na [PY Ep 539]
  • LB i-na-o > Gr. ινάω (inao) or ἰνέω (ineo) “to empty, to evacuate”
  • L. inanis “empty headed, silly”

Notes: i-na occurs as an anthroponym and is listed in the LB IPN.

Entry added on 28 Oct 2014

色 (n.) color


  • LB wi-ro > Gr.Ἶρος (Iros) “messenger of Iris, who was messenger among the gods”
  • iridescent “rainbow-colored” < L. iris (gen. iridis) “rainbow”
  • iris < L. iris < Gr. ἰρίς (iris) < “goddess of the rainbow”

Notes: Iris was the Greek goddess of the rainbow. Moreover the Greeks used iris to refer to any brightly colored circle, such as the eye of a peacock’s tail [L&S 383]. The Japanese iro is a suffix that designates color (e.g. kiiro “amber, yellow”).

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 15 Dec 2012

一水 (n.) † one water; current
溢水 (n.) inundation, overflow


  • issue “to flow out”
  • O. Fr. issu “to flow out”, past. part. of issir
    • Jap. 水 sui “water”
    • Turk. su “river”

Notes: With the inclusion of 一 ichi “one”, 一水 has a literal meaning of “one water”. See also ANRYUU and RYUU.

Entry added on 05 Apr 2018

邪気 (n.) maliciousness; noxious gas


  • ja.ki
  • Gr. τζάκι (tzaki) “fireplace”
  • It. Jaci < Acireale or Jaciriali

Notes: An alternate Japanese pronunciation is zake. Compare Jaci, which, in ancient times, was known as Jachium and which is located at the base of Mt. Etna in Sicily. The noxious gas appears to refer to the gas vents that surround Mt. Etna.

See also Toponyms: JA.QI.

Entry added on 22 Dec 2012

回路 (n.) circuit, sea route


  • LA ka.i.ro
  • LA ki.ro > 岐路 kiro “one’s way back”
  • gear
  • Alb. xhiro “lap, round”
  • Fin. kierros “circuit, cycle, lap. ring, round, tour”
  • It. giro “circle, circuit, cycle, lap, round, tour, turn”
  • Gr. γῦρος (gyros) “circle, ring”
  • Nor. giro “tour”
  • year < O.E. gear “year” < Ger. jeram “year” < prob. from “that which [makes a complete cycle]”
    • PIE *yer-o “year, season”
    • Du. jaar
    • Ger. Jahr
    • O. Fris. ger

Notes: Compare Cairo, Egypt, which may well have been named by the Minoans for the frequent sea route. Compare, also, zero, which likely arises from giro, for its senses of round and completion, rather than from the Arabic cifr, as linguists have supposed.

Entry added on 16 Sep 2012

金 (n.) metal, money


  • Gr. γανάω (ganaô) “to gleam, to shine” (of metals)
  • Gr. καναχή (kanakhe) “the clash or ring of metal”

Notes: For an in-depth discussion about metalworking, see Naru Kanashi: Paradise Across the Ocean.

Entry added on 19 Aug 2014
Updated on 07 Dec 2014

空手 (n.) the martial art of unarmed defense


  • Gr. κρατέω (krateo) “to be powerful, to be strong; to conquer, to get the upper hand”
  • Gr. παγκράτιον (pankration) “a complete contest; an exercise that combined boxing and wrestling”

Notes: See also The Minoan Origin of Karate.

Entry added on 19 Aug 2014

刈る (v.) to cut, to shear, to trim; to harvest, to reap; to mow


  • LA ka.ru > LB ka-ro
  • Gr. καρῶ (karo) “to cut, shear”
  • L. carere “to be separated from, to be without”
  • quarry “a pit from which stone is cut [in squares]” < M.E quarey, quarere < O.F. quarriere < quare “square stone”
  • quarry < L. carrariae
  • carve < O.E. ceorfan (past tense cearf) “to cut; to cut out, carve; to engrave” < W. Gmc kerfan < PIE *gerbh- “to scratch”
    • PIE *gerbh- “to scratch”
    • Du. kerven, Ger. kerben,
    • O. Fris. kerva “to cut, notch”
    • Gr. γράφειν (graphein) “to graze, scrape, scratch; to engrave”
    • kerf < M.E. kyrf < O.E. cyrf “act of cutting”

Notes: Carrera marble is associated with Carrara, Italy, which is historically known for its marble quarries. Quarry workers are known as stone carvers [“Carrara”] or cutters. Consequently, curve should be considered as “a shape derived from carving”. Cf. also ki.ri.si > 切石 kiriishi “ashlar, hewn stone”.


  1. Carrara. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 16 Jun 2012.

Entry added on 16 Jun 2012



瑕疵 or 疵瑕 (n.) blemish, defect, flaw


  • ka.si > LB ka-si >
  • si.ka [see HT Wa 1014-18, 1027-28]
  • Gr. χάση (khase or khasi) “loss, ruin, waste”

Notes: Consider the Greek κασσί (kassi) “tin” and χεσι (khesi) “obscene (language)”. Perhaps χεσι has the sense of corrupt, as in copper corrupted with tin. Moreover, what is a defect if not “obscene” or “offensive to the senses”?

Entry added on 23 April 2014


川 or 巛 (n.) river, stream (rad. #47)


  • Goth. ahwa “water”
  • L. aqua “water”
  • PIE *akwa- “water”

Notes: See also ISSUI.

生糸 (n.) raw-silk thread; silk


  • ki-to > Gr. χιτών (khiton) “tunic, garment worn next to the skin”; κιθών (kithon) Ionic for “tunic”
  • LB ki-to-na > χιτώνη (khitone) “epithet for Artemis, who wore a short, Dorian khiton
  • LB ki-to-ne > χιτῶνα (khitona) “tunic, garment worn next to the skin”
  • chiton “molluscs with ‘coat-of-mail’ shells” < Gr. khiton “tunic, coat of mail”
  • Aramaic kittuna
  • Akkadian kitintu “linen dress” < kitu, kitinnu “linen”
  • Heb. kuttoneth “coat”
  • cotton < O. Fr coton
    • Du. katoen
    • Ger. Kattun
    • Ital. cotone

Notes: Cf. Laconian σηροκτόνος (seroktonos) “silk khiton“.

Entry added on 10 Dec 2012
Updated on 29 Nov 2014

岐路 (n.) one’s way back


Entry added on 16 Sep 2012

古墳 (n.) ancient burial mound, tomb


  • It. cafano, Sp. cuebano “basket”
  • coffer < O.Fr. cofre “chest” < L. cophinus “basket”
  • coffin < O. Fr cofin “sarcophagus” < “basket, coffer” < L. cophinus “basket, hamper” < Gr. κόφινος (kophinus) “basket”


興奮 (n.) agitation, arousal, excitement, stimulation


  • Gr. τάφος (taphos)/τάφον (taphon) (1) “burial”, “funerary rites”, “tomb, sepulcher”; (2) “amazement, astonishment”

Notes: kofun / koufun is possibly found in ku.pa3.nu [HT 1].

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012

小女 (n.) a maiden, a young woman (arch.)


  • Gr. χόανος (khoanos) “hollow for melting metal, melting pot”
  • Gr. ξόανα (xoana) “carved images”
  • Gal. Xoanafem. form of John”
  • LA a.ko.a.ne (PK Za 11)

Notes: The association of these seemingly disparate words is found in the Greek images of deities, many of whom were female. For a discussion of materials and forms, see Naru Kanashi: The Paradise Across the Ocean. Donahue [1988] provides countless examples of these female xoana in his Appendix 1: Testimonia. Entry numbers rather than page numbers follow these examples:

  • “This remarkable xoanon Aeximenes erected to Aphrodite, the guardian of all navigation” (13).
  • “[T]he xoanon of the Mother of the Gods is made of a grape vine, because the grape vine is in like way sacred to Rhea” (26).
  • “[S]peaking of the xoanon of Hera in Tiryns, [Demetrius] records both its material as pear-tree wood, and its maker, Argus” (44).
  • “In accordance with an oracle, Orestes, coming with Pylades to the Taurians of Scythia, determined to steal away the xoanon of Artemis that is honored among them” (89).
  • “Ajax, the son of Ilis, tearing Cassandra away by force, dragged down the xoanon of Athena” (325).

While Rhea and Hera may be deemed matronly in their roles, Athena, Aphrodite, and Artemis were typically represented as young women. Compare the LA a.ra.tu.me [HT Wc 3024] and a.re.tu.mi [Za7], which are, perhaps, found in the archaic Japanese vocative iratsume “lass”. This may well be an early reference to Artemis, who, consistent with the depiction of the archer on the roundel, HT Wc 3024, was often represented as the Huntress.

Thus far, there is no translation for the LA a.ko.a.ne. However, in context, it may be one of the many references to Ida, the Idaean Mother.


  1. Donahue, A. A. 1988. Xoana and the Origins of Greek Sculpture. American Classical Studies: No. 15. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

Entry added on 25 Nov 2012

後端 (n.) end, tail


  • coda < L. cauda “tail”
  • cut < M.E. cutten, kitten, prob. < Late O.E. cyttan
  • Ice. kuta “to cut with a knife”
  • O.Fr. couteau “knife”
  • O.N. kuti “knife”
  • Swed. kuta “(1) to cut, (2) knife”

Notes: E caudata is a linguistic term that refers to final e as in /æ /, /e/, or /ea/.

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 16 Jun 2012

囗 (n.) box, enclosure (radical #31)
矩 (n.) quadrature [the process of squaring]


  • cube < M. Fr. cube < L. cubus < Gr. κύβος (kubos) “a cube, a six-sided figure”
  • quad “four-sided figure”
  • quadrant “a quarter of a day: six hours” < L. quadrantem “fourth part”
  • L. quadrare “to make square” < quadrus “a square” < quattuor “four”
  • quarry < L. quarreria “a place where stones are squared” < L. quadrare to make square”
  • square “with four equal sides and four right angles” < O. Fr. esquire “a square, squareness”

Notes: I suspect that the word, quad, arose from membership in the class of mathematical principles–monad, duad, triad, etc.–and is an ancient, alternate name for the tetrad (square). The quad‘s three-dimensional counterpart is the hexahedron (cube), a six-sided geometrical solid (also Pythagorean solid, Platonic solid) with six square faces. The cube is the symbol for earth. According to Schneider [1994: 67], the square is the “preeminent symbol for the ancient Earth Mother.”

The following Japanese words incorporate the square and the root “ku”:

  1. ku, kuchi, guchi (口) “mouth”
  2. ku (く) kanji for “ku”, which suggests two sides and one corner of a square
  3. kuni (国) “country, earth, land” (see KUNI)


  1. Schneider, Michael S. 1994. A Beginner’s Guide to Constructing the Universe: The Mathematical Architypes of Nature, Art, and Science. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Entry added on 01 Dec 2012
Updated on 10 Apr 2013

苦味 (n.) bitterness, bitter taste


  • ku-mi-no > Gr. κύμινον (kuminon) “cumin” or “cummin”
  • Arabic kammun “cumin
  • Hebrew kammon “cumin”

Notes: Cumin is also called bitter cumin, which appears to be redundant.

Entry added on 23 May 2013

雲 (n.) cloud


  • cumulus “a heap” < L. cumulus “a heap, a mass, a pile; surplus”
  • Gr. κῦμα (kuma) “anything swollen as though pregnant”, such as “a billow [pillow], a wave”

Notes: Cumulus as “a rounded mass of clouds” is attested in 1803. Note that Japanese kumo also means “spider”, which may take its meaning from “a swollen or rounded mass”.

Entry added on 06 Jun 13
Updated on 28 Nov 2014

国 (n.) country, earth, home, home country, land, region


  • kin “family, kind, race; kind, sort” < O.E. cynn < P. Gmc. kunjam “family”
  • kind “class, sort, variety” < O.E. gecynd “kind, nature, race”
  • Dan., Swed. kön
  • Goth. kuni “family, race”
  • O.E. cennan “beget, create”
  • O.Fris. kenn
  • O.H.G. chunni “kin, race”
  • O.N. kyn
  • O.S. kunni
  • king “ruler” < possibly O.E. cynn “family, race”

Notes: See also KU.

Entry added on 04 Aug 2012
Updated on 17 Mar 2013

車 (n.) car, chariot, vehicle, wheel


  • LA ku.ru.ma > LB ku-ru-me-ni-jo and ku-ru-me-no-jo [see PY An 654]
  • car < O.N.Fr. carre < L. carrum, currum “two-wheeled, Celtic war chariot”
  • Skt. karma “cycle, wheel”
  • Gr. ῥῦμα (hruma) “that which is drawn”
  • Gr. άρμα (arma) < ἅρμα (harma) [Hermes?] “chariot”
    • armor < L. armatura “arms, equipment” < L. arma “arms, gear”
    • army < M.L. armata “armed force”
    • armada < M.L. armata “armed force”

Notes: The LB PY references belong to the body of “chariot” tablets from Pylos. Thus far, scholars have been unable to translate KU-RU-ME-NI-JO. The Gr. ῥῦμα (hruma) “that which is drawn” may imply bows or chariots (cf. kuruma). Compare ῥύμα (hruma) and ῥεῦμα (hreuma) “anything that flows, a stream”. The metaphor, “flood of men”, may relate to a battle context.

However, see Toponyms: KU.RU.MA (under revision) for more information about the chariot’s association to Hermes and about my proposed translation of the first part of PY An 654

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 25 Jan 2013

蠱 (adj.) charmed and cursed

(n.) something that bewilders, leads one astray; the work of demons


  • LA ma.di > LB ma-di > Μηδίς (Medis) “a Median woman” > ma-di-qo (KN B 806, Dl 930, Dv 1460) > Μηδικός (Medikos) “the Median affairs” or μαγικός (magikos) “fit for the Magians; magical”
  • PIE *magh “to have power”
  • magic “the art of using hidden natural forces” < O.F. magique < Late L. magice “magic, sorcery”
  • mage “magician” < L. magus “magician”

Notes: An ancient name for Iran is Media, and its people were called Medes or the Medians [“Medes”]. As the Magi, the Medes were followers of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism [Magi”] and practiced the medical arts, for which Iran became known [“Ancient”]. Consequently, medicine and magic are confounded in ma-di-qo: Μηδικός and μαγικός. Medea, a devote of Hecate, was among the greatest sorceresses in Greek mythology. The myth explains how her son, Medus, became the king of the country that would eventually be called Media [“Medea”].


Ancient Iranian Medicine. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 08 Jan 2013.

  1. Magi. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 08 Jan 2013.
  2. Medea. Pantheon.org. Ret. on 19 Jan 2013.
  3. Medes. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 08 Jan 2013.

See Toponyms: MA.DI for more information.

Entry added on 19 Jan 2013

負け (n.) defeat, loss; losing (a game)


  • IE *magh– “to fight”
  • match “contest”
  • Gr. μάχομαι (makhomai) “to fight”
  • Jap. 区区 machimachi “conflicting, divergent”

Notes: The /ch/ in the Japanese machimachi is identical to the /ch/ in match. Consider also the possible related definition behind Machiavelli.

See also The Minoan Origin of Karate.

Entry added on 17 Jun 2012

増す (v.) to grow, to increase


  • Gr. μασι- (masi-) > intensifier (prefix)
  • Jap. 斗 or 升 masu “measure, measuring box”
  • mash “to beat into a soft mass”
  • mass “lump, quantity, size” < O. Fr. masse “heap, lump, pile”
  • Sp. mas “more”

Notes: As a unit of measurement, a masu box contains 18 liters. Perhaps this box may be compared with LB me-ri> μερίς “part, portion”, which, in three instances on KN Gg 702 and 704, is followed by *209 VAS.

Entry added on 04 Oct 2014
Updated on 22 Feb 2015 * 05 Apr 2018

見 (v.) to look at, to see, to view


  • miracle < L. miraculum “object of wonder” < mirari “to wonder at” < mirus “wonderful”
  • mirage < Fr. se mirer “to be reflected” < V.L. mirare
  • mirror < O.Fr. mireor < mirer “look at” < V.L. *mirare < L. mirari “to wonder at, admire” < L. admirari “to wonder at”

Notes: Compare, also, the homophonic words sea and see. The Japanese kanji for see (見) is also included in one spelling for the sea (綿津見). Compare IE words that are related to the sea, possibly for its reflective aspect: L. mare, mari; Est. meri; Fr. mer; Ger. meer.

See also SAMA.

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 31 Aug 2012

蜜 (n.) honey, nectar

ミード (n.) ambrosia, honey wine, mead, nectar of the gods


  • LA mi.tu (pronounced mitsu)
  • PIE *medhu– “honey, sweet drink”
  • mead < O.E. medu < P.Gmc. *meduz < PIE *medhu- “honey, sweet drink”
  • Breton mez “mead”
  • Ger. Met “mead”
  • Gr. μέθυ (methu)
  • Lith. medus “honey”
  • M. Du., O Fris. mede;
  • O.C.S. medu “honey”
  • O. Ir mid “mead”
  • Skt. madhu “honey, sweet, sweet drink, wine”
  • Welsh medd “mead”
  • meadow

Notes: Witzel (2005) recognizes mitsu as a Japanese word for the IE medhu-.

See Toponyms: MI.TU (under revision).

Entry added on 03 Jun 2012


基 (n.) (arch.) (1) basis, foundation; (2) cause


  • motivate “to stimulate toward action”
  • motive < O. Fr. motif “moving” and Med. Lat. motivus “impelling, moving”
  • motor “controller, prime mover” < L. motor “mover”
  • Fr. motif “dominant feature, theme”


Entry added on 10 Apr 2013

群 (n.) gathering, group
村 (n.) village


  • mural “pertaining to walls”
  • Gr. μόρα (mora) “(military) division”

Notes: Many cities and villages historically have been surrounded by defensive walls.

Entry added on 17 Jan 2013
Updated on 16 Dec 2015

夏 (n.) summer


  • nature < O.Fr. nature < L. natura “course of things, natural character, the universe”, “birth” < natus “born,” pp. of nasci “to be born”

Notes: The “birth” of nature occurs primarily in both spring and summer. If this word were to appear in LA, it would be transliterated as na.tu; cf. mi.tu (HT 117) to mitsu.

Entry added on 05 Jun 2012

王道 (n.) the noble path, the royal road; the easy method, a short cut

ou “king, magnate, ruler”
dou “course, path, roadway; journey”


  • Gr. ὁδός or οὐδός “a highway, a road; a manner, a method, a way; journeying, travelling”

Notes:  Cf. 王 with AB *024 NE.

Entry added on 12 Apr 2018

流 (n.) current, flow,


  • Gr. ρέω (hreô) “to flow, to gush, to stream”
  • Sp. rio “river”

Notes: See also ANRYUU and ISSUI.

Entry added on 06 Sep 2020

見栄え  (n.) appearance


  • Gr. (Doric) σᾶμα (sama) or  σῆμα (sêma) “a mark, a sign”> σημαντικός (semantikos) “significant” >  Fr. sémantique > semantic
  • semaphore “apparatus for signaling” prob. < Fr. sémaphore “bearer of signals”

Notes: The first kanji in the Japanese logograph is 見 miru “to look at, to see, to view”.

Entry added on 31 Aug 2012

現実  (n.) reality, truth


  • sanity < M.Fr. sanité “health,” < L. sanitas “health, sanity,” < sanus “healthy, sane”
  • sense < O.Fr. sens < L. sensus “perception, feeling “
  • Goth sunja “truth”
  • O.E. soþ “true,” originally *sonþ– < P.Gmc. *santhaz
  • O.H.G. sand “true”
  • O.N sannr “true”

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 05 Jun 2012

白  (n.) silver, white

deleted information to be added

甑炉  (n.) (obsc.) furnace for casting bronze


  • LB so-u-ro
  • Gr. σορός (soros) “vessel, esp. a cinerary urn”

Notes: In context, so-u-ro appears to be a reference to a bronze worker.

Entry added on 27 Sep 2013

てき  (n.) (abr.) beefsteak < bifuteki


  • LA te.ki
  • Gr. μπιφτεκι (bifteki) “burger, ground beef”

Notes: The Japanese teki may originally have been an abbreviation for tataki, which refers to meat that has been tenderized [“Tataki”]. Moreover, Greek tzatziki sauce is an accompaniment to beef dishes such as gyros and Moroccan beef, which, interestingly enough, is called kefta and which sounds similar to keftiu, a supposed reference to the Minoans [“Keftiu”].

See also The Decipherment of Linear A: HT 13 (under revision).


  1. Harry’s Greek Food and Wine Guide. Harry’s Greece Travel Guide. Ret. on 23 Dec. 2011. .
  2. Keftiu. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 23 Dec 2011.
  3. Tataki. Wikipedia.org. Ret. on 23 Dec 2011.

Entry added on 17 Jun 2012

占い  (n.) fortune telling, divination


  • Aurana > L. Vrana
  • Uranus < Gk. ουρανός (ouranos) “heaven”
  • Croatian vrana “raven”, a bird associated with divination

Note: Urana (Vrana), which is located on the Dalmation coast, was the supposed ancient capital of the Marathonian district [Leake 1829: 167]. Raven may be a phonetic metathesis of vrana.

Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 05 Apr 2018

野師  (n.) charlatan, faker, quack


  • Gr. ἴασις (iasis) “healing, healing mode, remedy”
  • Gr. ἰατρός (iatros) “one who heals, physician”

Note: LB pa-ki-ja-si [PY Un 2 et al.] does not appear to have a complete Greek translation. However, assuming a compound word, the second word appears to be the Greek ἴασις. Moreover, cf. pa-ki-ja-si with the Japanese fukiyashi (see the phonetic key). Fuki is the Japanese name for butterbur (Petasites hybridus), which the ancient Greeks used when treating multiple ailments that included gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, inflammation, and lung diseases [“Butterbur”]. Consequently, in LB context, pa-ki-ja-si as fukiyashi, or, perhaps, fuki-iasis, may refer to a clan name that arose from its association with healing. At the moment, however, there appears to be no modern equivalent to this name.


  1. Butterbur (Petasites hybridus). Natural Standard. com. Ret. on 12.10.12.

Entry added on 10 Dec 2012

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