Category archives for Linear A

Linear-Script Signs: KI

SIGN INDEX *= Proposed By Numeric Reference 067 (KI) | By Phonetic Value KI (067) | KI AB *067 κίλλιξ (killix) | ox with crooked horns κίλλιξ = στάμνος | earthen jar, or bottle for racking off wine (perhaps made from an ox horn). ki | 器 (KI ) | container, receptacle, vessel ki | […]

The Meanings of the Linear Script Signs

Updated on November 25, 2015 Writing systems such as LinA, LinB, and LinC use the acrophonic principle to assign phonetic values to the signs that are used to write words. An understanding of the meanings behind linear-script signs could provide much insight about the underlying cultures. The following glossary terms will be helpful when reading this post: acrophony glide kanji […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: THE Zb 6

An earthenware jug THE Scribe unknown A. he je | 瓮 (he) | an earthenware vessel for holding alcoholic beverages, etc. Notes:  This vessel may have been among the first to hold beer, which is endemic to Egyptian culture.  Moreover, this translation lends support to the third possibility for KE Zb 3. Entry added on 09 Jan […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: MY Zf 2

A Bronze Cauldron MY Scribe unknown While Mycenae is known for its LinB tablets, at least two LinA inscriptions have been found on grave goods. One of these objects is a bronze cauldron that bears a single sign on the flange of one of its handles. This appears to be the only instance in LinA […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: KE Zb 3

A course-ware cup KE Scribe unknown The Cycladic island of Kea or Keos (modern Tzia) is located 60 km (37.5 miles) southeast of Athens. During the Bronze Age, Kea was a Minoan settlement at the site now known as Aghia Irini [“Kea”].  Among this site’s LinA inscriptions is a course-ware cup that bears a single […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: HS Zg 1

A schist plaque HS scribe unknown A. | 天 (ama) | heaven, sky; deva Notes:  Thus far, this plaque is the only LinA inscription from this site.  Compare 天照大  神 Amaterasu Oomikami “the sun goddess”, which is the principle deity in the Shinto pantheon.  照らす terasu means “to illuminate, to shine”, and 大御神  oomikami, or ookami, is […]

Around the Mediterranean

While there is much evidence in the LinA texts and the Minoan culture for the Minoan/Japanese association, evidence beyond the shores of Crete continues to present itself in support of early Japanese presence. This post supplements Beyond the Mediterranean with evidence about bronze-aged and post-bronze-aged Mediterranean culture, as it relates to Japanese culture. Mekku Stones […]

Japanese Concordances with Indo-European (IE) Languages

Updated on September 06, 2020 One theory states that Japanese cannot be the underlying language of Linear A (LA) because Japanese, like LA, must belong to the Indo-European (IE) family of languages to be considered. Paradoxically, linguists separately postulate that both LA and the Japonic languages belong to the Altaic family of IE languages. Consequently, […]

The Okinawan Sekiban (石版)

Updated on August 19, 2017 In 1933, the 8th year of the Showa era, Dr. Yamasaki Seidou, of Kumamoto Medical College, and Shimabukuro Gen-ichiro found the first stone tablet while visiting the grave site of a friend. Although the circumstances of subsequent discoveries are unclear, 11 more “ancient stone tablets” (korai no sekiban) were found in […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: MA Ze 11

A monumental inscription This inscription is found on a block in the northwest corner of the palace at Malia. MA scribe unknown .1 1. | 貸手 (kashite) | a lender 1. | † 貨仕 (kashite) | † a freight official Notes:  Since there is no evidence of a monetary system in Minoan […]

Pax Minoica and the Okinawan Peace

In the early twentieth century, the archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans, proposed the Pax Minoica (Minoan Peace) to describe the evident lack of aggression among or by the Minoans [“Minoan”]. Opponents of this theory cite evidence of fortifications, weapons, and certain sports–such as boxing (see The Minoan Origin of Karate)–to bolster their positions. However, a fortification […]

The Minoan Origin of Karate (空手, καρατέ, κρᾰτέω)

Updated on February 28, 2018 Since there are few surviving historical documents, historians have their theories about the origin of karate. Some historians believe that karate originated in China, while others believe that karate originated in Okinawa during the 15th century CE [“History”]. However, there is compelling evidence that karate originated in Crete and that […]

The Decipherment of Linear A: HT 117

Trade Itinerary HT Scribe 9 LinA is often characterized by its many accounting lists, as evidenced in Haghia Triada (HT) texts, such as HT 13. However, HT 117 is not an accounting list of commodities but rather a trade itinerary for the Minoan fleet. The heading suggests that it was written after the return journey. […]

References to the Similarities Between the Minoan and the Japanese Cultures

Updated on July 31, 2022 With References to the Ancient Greeks During the past century, since the excavation of Minoan sites on Crete, there have been numerous references, by Minoan and other scholars, to the similarities between the Minoan and the Japanese cultures. Until now, however, no one has explored the possibility that Japan is […]

The Minoan “Seki” (尺)

Updated on April 29, 2012 [This article presumes knowledge about both the Minoan civilization and the Linear A transcriptions.] A hallmark of Minoan architecture is ashlar masonry, which refers to stone that has been cut and finished (dressed). Ashlar masonry is common throughout prehistoric Crete and Greece. The width of large ashlar, as used on […]

Mino: The Fertile Island

Updated on September 24, 2014 Archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans is credited with naming the Minoan civilization for the legendary King Minos [“Evans”]. However, evidence suggests that both the king and the people were named after a reference to the land, which appears to have been named for the Egyptian god of fertility In the Odyssey, […]

Naru Kanashi: Paradise Across the Ocean

Updated on December 7, 2014 The Ryukyuans have a legend that refers to the Other Realm, an island paradise, which they call Nirai Kanai (ニライカナイ) [Atsushi]. The orientation of this paradise depends upon the cultural source of the legend and is, alternately, east or west across the ocean. Nirai Kanai is the source of life, […]

The Genetic Affinity Between Cretans and Okinawans

Updated on July 01, 2013 Linguists generally dismiss language correlations among societies unless there is demonstrated non-random genetic affinity [“Genetic Distance”] through one or more DNA markers, which identify ancestral clans. Consequently, despite the language similarity, linguists dismiss Japanese as the underlying language of Linear A because the DNA research, as typified in the haplo-group […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: u.di.mi to

u.di.mi | | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. u.di.mi HT 117 (HT Scribe 9) 氏見 (ujimi) | † clan visitation  氏 (uji, uji-, shi) | family name, surname; bclan, lineage 見 (mi) | seeing, viewing ウシーミ (ushiimi) > † Σύμη (Syme or Symi, Simi) | Symi island, Greece Symi island [Greece] The […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: si.di.ja

si.di.ja | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. si.di.ja HT 126 (HT Scribe unknown) しじや (shijiya) | Ash Shidiya, Jordan Wadi Ash Shidiyah, Jordan Although the Phoenicians have been credited with the production of Tyrian purple, evidence suggests that, as early as the middle Minoan period (1900 to 1700 BCE), the Minoans had learned […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: to qe.ri.ja | qe.ri.ja | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. HT 20 (HT Scribe 10) | 隠れ (kakure) | concealed, hidden; crypto-, underground ku.ra | 倉 (kura) | a cellar, a depository, a granary, a magazine, a treasury, a warehouse Κόρκῡρα (Korkyra) | Kerkyra, Corcyra, Corfu [Kerkyra, Greece] A notable example of […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: to | | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. HT 94 (HT Scribe 9) HT We 1019 (HT Scribe unknown) パタネ (patane) | Patane (unknown name) カタネ (katane) | Catana, Katane κατάνη (katane) | the skinning place Κατάνη (Katane) | Catania, Sicily [Catania, Sicily] The surname, Patanè, is specific to Patané, a district […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: ma.di

ma.di | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. ma.di HT 3, 69, 85, 97, 118 (HT Scribes 3, 7, 9, unknown) ma-di KN As 603+, Db 1168+ (Scribes 103, 117) 蠱 (maji) | (1) charmed or cursed (arch.); (2) something that bewilders; something that leads one astray; the work of demons 真風 (maji) | […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: to | | | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. HT 117 (HT Scribe 9) キダル (kidaru) | Kidal [Kidal, Mali] Isolated in northwestern Mali, Kidal is known not for its mining but for its handicrafts: gold and silver jewelry, leather goods, and swords, particularly Tuareg cutlasses and sabers. An interesting parallel […]

Toponyms in Linear A Texts: ja.qif

ja.qif | Return to Toponyms in Linear A Texts. ja.qif HT 28 (HT Scribe 13) 邪気 (jake, jaki, zake) | maliciousnous, noxious gas 邪鬼 (jake, jaki, zake) | devil, evil spirit, imp ᾿Ιακή (Iake) (fem. form of Ἰακός) | Ionic τζάκι (tzaki) | fireplace, furnace [Aci, Sicily] Locally shortened to Aci or Jaci, Jaciriali (Acireale) […]